Surgical Sperm Recovery
There are two main types of azoospermia
The sperm production in the testes is normal but there is a blockage in the tube (vas deferens) which carries the sperm from the testes. The blockage can be due to infection, congenital absence of vas deferens, previous vasectomy or failed vasectomy reversal. In such cases, there is a high chance of success.
Here there is no obstruction in the passage but there is a defect in sperm production itself, often following delayed treatment of an undescended testes or due to a subtle genetic abnormality. In such cases, the chance of success is lower
Surgical sperm recovery is a minor operation which can be performed to obtain sperm from the reproductive tract. These sperm are functionally competent but can only swim very weakly, if at all. However, they can be injected into and successfully fertilise eggs using the ICSI technique. We use two main techniques:
Percutaneous Epdidymal Sperm Aspiration (PESA)
This is a simple procedure whereby sperm is aspirated from epididymis with a small needle. There is no cut involved in this procedure. After collecting the sample, it is examined under the microscope to confirm the presence of sperm. If this is not successful in retrieving sperm TESA is performed.
Testicular Sperm Aspiration (TESA)
Here the sperm is directly obtained from the testis with a small needle and suction applied with a small syringe